Result Sheet Interpretation

What does your InBody Result Sheet mean?

Hover over different parts of the InBody Result Sheet to get a brief overview of what each body composition output means. The following interpretations are demonstrated on the InBody 770 Body Composition Result Sheet but are applicable to all Result Sheets.

Want to know how to use this data in practice? Download our free guide here.

Body Composition Analysis displays the weight of Total Body Water (Intracellular water (ICW) and extracellular water (ECW)), protein, minerals, and body fat mass. Body weight is the total of these four components.
Muscle-Fat Analysis uses bar graphs to provide a comparison between weight, skeletal muscle mass, and body fat mass. The lengths of the bar graphs indicate the relationship between the current weight to the average value for that specific segment, based on the examinee’s height.
Obesity Analysis displays both BMI and percent body fat. PBF is a more accurate determination of your health because it compares your fat levels to your weight. Although outdated, BMI is included on the InBody result sheets because it is commonly used in scientific research.
The Segmental Lean Analysis graph is effective and informed assessment of lean mass distribution within the five segments of a user’s body. This helps professionals closely monitor changes and make adjustments as necessary.
Total body water is composed of intracellular water (ICW) and extracellular water (ECW). A healthy person’s ECW/TBW ratio is expected to fall between .360-.390. ECW/TBW Analysis can detect unusual shifts in fluid distribution or changes in the ECW/ICW ratio.
After an InBody Test is taken, results are saved onto the device and can be recalled if an ID is entered at the beginning of the test. The cumulative graph quickly shows changes in the examinee’s body composition and allows for dietary-exercise modifications.
Visceral fat is the fat surrounding your organs. InBody recommends people maintain a Visceral Fat Level under 10 or a Visceral Fat Area under 100 square centimeters. Higher amounts of visceral fat are associated with the development of diseases like diabetes, stroke and dementia.
Weight control gives the examinee a guideline so they can adjust their diet and exercise in order to attain a healthy percent body fat. This data is useful in monitoring clients’ health and helps facilitate trust between health professionals and their clients.
Segmental Fat Analysis is a derivative of the Segmental Lean Analysis and is presented in a similar manner. This portion of the result sheet provides the weight of fat in each segment and the percent above or below sufficiency.
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) is the amount of calories a person needs to keep the body functioning while at rest. A person with more lean body mass would have a higher BMR than a person with less lean body mass.
Phase angle is an indicator of cellular integrity and intracellular water. InBody devices provide whole body phase angle and segmental phase angle at 50 kHz. Higher phase angles indicate greater cellular integrity and/or fluids inside the cells.
InBody provides segmental impedance values at varying frequencies to obtain an accurate analysis of the body.

Everything you need to know to interpret InBody Results and start offering your clients the insights they need to improve their health & wellness.

The InBody Result Sheet, if used properly, can be one of the most powerful tools at your disposal to guide, train, and care for your clients in ways that were never before possible. However, to unlock the power of the InBody Result Sheet, you need to become familiar with how it reports information, and even more importantly, what you can do with it.

Packed into the InBody Result Sheet is the health and fitness information that anyone who deals with the health and wellness of their clients absolutely needs if they want to be the best professional they can be.

You’ll learn what the terms on the Result Sheet mean, why they’re valuable, and the strategies you can use to implement this invaluable data into your business and with your clients.

If you have any questions at all, visit our contact page and an InBody Specialist will be happy to assist you with anything you’d like to know.

* The information provided is to be used for educational/informational purposes only and does not constitute medical advice. Only certified medical & health professionals may diagnose patients and provide such advice.

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Chapter 1: Body Composition Analysis & Body Water

Body Composition Analysis

IN THIS SECTION, YOU’LL LEARN:
  • How to understand a body composition breakdown
  • How to determine if muscle growth has truly occurred
  • How to identify swelling in the body

At the top of the Result Sheet is your client’s basic body composition breakdown.

D epending on the model of InBody you’re using, the breakdown may look a little different, but all models start with the smallest units on the left and gradually get into the bigger categories until you get to the total body weight on the far right.

In this example, taken from the InBody 770 Result Sheet, you can see how weight is broken down into Fat Free Mass, Soft Lean Mass, and Total Body Water, which is broken into even smaller pieces: Total Body Water, Protein, Mineral, and Body Fat Mass.

Starting from the top, you have Total Body Water and Protein. Total Body Water can be divided into Intracellular Water and Extracellular Water. Intracellular Water is the amount of body water held within the body’s cells; Extracellular Water is the water outside the cells.

Breaking It Down

Both of these sections are useful in their own right, but monitoring Extracellular Water in particular has a lot of very pertinent uses to health professionals.
If you notice an increase in ECW, but not ICW, this could be the presence of internal swelling and/or inflammation.
Because muscle is made up of mostly protein, if you see your client’s protein increase, it’s very likely that they have truly gained muscle.

Below Total Body Water and Protein, you can find Minerals. Although this is an often underused section of the Result Sheet, it can reveal some very interesting insights. Minerals refers to the total amount of inorganic minerals that are dissolved in bone and body fluids which represents osseous and non-osseous mineral respectively.

Breaking It Down

Minerals account only about 5-6% of body weight and are not an energy source, but they are essential nutrients to maintain life and health. Most of which constitute bones and teeth, except for a small amount of ionic constituents dissolved in body water.

Below Minerals is Body Fat Mass. This reports all of the body fat in the person testing, including both the surface level (subcutaneous) and internal (visceral) fat.

By adding Total Body Water, Protein, and Minerals, you get Fat Free Mass (FFM) shown in the second column from the right. FFM is the weight of everything except body fat. This includes muscle, water, bones, organs – everything that is not body fat.

Most of the time, increases in FFM reflect increases in muscle (which you can also see as an increase in Protein), and is considered a positive improvement in body composition. However, people who do not maintain normal body water ratios may have increased FFM due to swelling caused by certain health conditions.

ECW/TBW Analysis

IN THIS SECTION, YOU’LL LEARN:
  • How to understand a body composition breakdown
  • How to determine if muscle growth has truly occurred
  • How to identify swelling in the body

The ECW Ratio Analysis compares the ratio of ECW to TBW. Most healthy people will have an average ratio of around 0.380, with the acceptable range being between 0.360 – 0.390. Anything beyond 0.390 may indicate swelling or excess ECW.

You’ll see minor fluctuations in your client’s ECW Ratio – that’s normal. This output is primarily used to give context to another section – the Segmental Lean Analysis.

Breaking It Down

This graph lets you quickly understand if your client has some sort of swelling in his or her body, either in a specific area (like in the case of an injury) or present throughout the entire body (often seen in obese individuals).
You can also use this to give context to FFM. High FFM and a high ECW Ratio usually indicate the presence of excess body water – not just muscle.

Chapter 2: Muscle, Fat, & Obesity Risk

Muscle-Fat Analysis

IN THIS SECTION, YOU’LL LEARN:
  • How to quickly identify common body compositions
  • How to tell if someone is under, over, or normal in weight,
    muscle, and fat

For many people, this section of the Result Sheet is one of their favorite sections.

Why? Because it allows you to categorize different body types more easily. This section makes it simple for you to give your clients a good, general idea about their current overall body composition and what changes they need to make.

How to read the numbers at the top

The 100% mark, as well as all the percentage marks, are all based on what is considered normal for an individual of the specific height and gender they give when they tested. It allows you to compare your client to others of the same height and gender.

While the healthy range varies as shown above, 100% designates the average for individuals with the same height and gender. So, if the weight bar extended to 130%, this would mean that the person who you are testing is 30% above average.

Similarly, if your client’s weight bar extended to 70%, this would mean that your client has 30% less mass than is considered normal for their height.

Breaking It Down

This graph lets you show your client how their body composition compares against people of the same height and gender.

Muscle-Fat Analysis has three components:

WEIGHT
Total Body Weight

SKELETAL MUSCLE MASS (SMM)
The total weight of your client’s Skeletal Muscle. These are the muscles that can be grown and developed through exercise. Unlike FFM, which includes everything that isn’t body fat, you can view an increase in SMM as actual muscle gain.

BODY FAT MASS
This is how much body fat your client has, and includes both the surface level and internal fat.

The Muscle-Fat Analysis also tells you whether your client has a healthy balance of SMM and Body Fat Mass in respect to his or her weight.

Breaking It Down

The Muscle-Fat Analysis graph allows you to get a rough understanding of your client’s overall body composition in one quick glance. By looking at the lengths of each bar and how they compare to each other, you can better understand how to help your client reach their goals.

 

The Basic Body Types: “C-Shape”

The three values presented in the Muscle-Fat Analysis are arranged in such a way as to make it simple and easy to make general observations about your client’s body composition.

You do this by forming one of the three “shapes” by connecting the endpoints of the Weight, SMM, and Body Fat Mass bars.

A C-shaped individual has a shorter bar length for SMM than for weight and Body Fat Mass. Although this is characteristic of someone who is overweight or obese, you may see this shape in someone who is normal or underweight, too.

Breaking it Down

You would want to counsel a client with a Muscle-Fat Analysis graph that looks like this to reduce their Body Fat Mass (which would also lower their Weight) while improving their Skeletal Muscle Mass. Helping this person improve to an I-Shape, and eventually a D-Shape, is the goal.

 

The Basic Body Types: “I-Shape”

An I-shaped individual has a “balanced” body composition, meaning their Weight, Skeletal Muscle Mass, and Body Fat Mass bars roughly form a straight line.

Although people with this body composition are often at a healthy weight or body fat percentage, they can still have health risks if they have too much body fat.

Breaking It Down

If you’re working with a client that has an I-shaped body composition, you should find out from them what their overall health goals are before making recommendations.
Typically, I-shaped people don’t have body compositions that put them at health risks, and so they are in a good position to focus on building muscle to gain strength and size, or lose body fat in order to gain improve overall leanness.

 

The Basic Body Types: “D-Shape”

A D-shaped person has a longer SMM bar than both their weight and body fat bars. This is indicative of an “athletic” body type and is considered to be the ideal body composition shape.

If you are working with a client who has this type of body composition, they likely already have specific fitness goals in mind, and your job will be to help them reach them.

Breaking It Down

Your client may want to improve their strength and size. In that case, you would want to monitor their SMM bar and Body Fat Mass bars to make sure that SMM increases without a significant increase in Body Fat Mass.
Others may want to work on their leanness and lose body fat. For a client with this goal, loss of Body Fat Mass should be monitored while taking care to mitigate loss of SMM. If SMM losses become too great, make adjustments.

Obesity Analysis

IN THIS SECTION, YOU’LL LEARN:
  • How to assess your client’s percent body fat
  • If your client’s body weight and BMI hides their health risks from excess body fat

The Obesity Analysis includes the signature metric of any body composition analysis: Percent Body Fat (PBF).

It’s a deceptively simple metric – a division of body fat mass by total weight – but it is a much better indicator of the risk of obesity than BMI, which is one of the major reasons BMI is still included in the analysis – to highlight its flaws by comparing it to PBF.

What’s the difference between BMI and PBF?

On the InBody Result Sheet, you’ll see a set of ranges for BMI and PBF. 18.5 –24.99 kg/m2 is the normal range according to the World Health Organization. This normal range is presented on the Result Sheet, although the InBody device can be programmed to use a different range.

For PBF, the ranges differ for men and women, as women tend to carry more body fat than men due to their reproductive system as well as genetics. The example above is a graph that represents a female individual, and the normal range for females is set at 18-28%, with the average being 23%.

Breaking It Down

You can show your client their body fat percentage to help them understand their health and fitness better. BMI should not be used. According to the WHO, BMI is a population-level measure of obesity, and a rough guide for individuals.

The healthy range

For men, the healthy range is between 10-20%

For women, the healthy range is between 18-28%

If you’d like more information on how InBody sets the PBF ranges for men and women, click here.

Body Composition History

IN THIS SECTION, YOU’LL LEARN:
  • How to recognize trends in body composition
  • How to identify positive or negative changes in body composition
    with respect to weight

At the bottom of the Result Sheet is the Body Composition History, which automatically tracks some of the most important body composition metrics. This makes it really easy to identify trends over time.

Take, for example, the results above. These results represent an athletic, D-shaped individual whose goal was to gain muscle and lose body fat.

Tracking positive change

As you can see, the program this individual adopted has clearly been successful. In about two months, his weight has  decreased 2 kg, yet has maintained 37.6 kg of muscle and dropped his percent body fat by 2.1%. By any measure, this would be an indication of great success!

Breaking It Down

If your client’s results look like the above example, the current exercise and/or diet regimen they’ve adopted would appear to be effective. Little modifications to diet or exercise are likely needed, but you should continue to monitor trends carefully.

Tracking negative change

The Body Composition History also makes it easy to raise red flags when negative changes in body composition occur, especially when they are disguised by a seemingly “positive” change of reduced body weight.

If you have a client whose graph looks similar, by testing this client’s body composition and seeing their overall trend, you would be able to see that much of this weight loss is due to the slow loss of muscle, leading to a higher Percent Body Fat.

Breaking It Down

A graph like this can be a real eye-opener for a client because it shows that negative changes in body composition can occur if his or her weight remains the same or even decreases for the wrong reason.
This person needs to be guided towards a solution that helps them retain their muscle mass with some combination of nutrition and strength training.

Chapter 3: Segmental Lean Analysis: Your Magnifying Glass

Segmental Lean Analysis

IN THIS SECTION, YOU’LL LEARN:
  • How to spot problem areas in your client’s development
  • How your client compares to others
  • If your client is sufficiently developed in all sections of their body
  • If your client has muscle imbalances

There are many valuable outputs on the Result Sheet. However, the Segmental Lean Analysis, if used properly is arguably the most powerful section of the Result Sheet.

FAT FREE MASS vs. MUSCLE MASS

In order to fully understand this section, you must fully understand what it is not. The information in the Segmental Lean Analysis shows how much Fat Free Mass is contained in each segment; not how much “muscle” is in each segment.

This is an important distinction. While it is true that Skeletal Muscle gains in a body segment will be reflected as gains in the Segmental Lean Analysis chart, not every gain in Fat Free Mass can be explained by muscle. That’s because Fat Free Mass  is the sum of all the non-fat components in the body. In other words, it is the sum of Total Body Water, Protein and Minerals. It is calculated by subtracting Body Fat Mass from the weight. Therefore, Fat Free Mass can be influenced both by muscle mass and body water.
In other words, if the person has edema because of injury and diseases, increase of body water affects Fat Free Mass or Segmental Lean Analysis. Therefore, by comparing Segmental Lean Analysis and ECW ratio together, InBody can identify whether the increased amount came from the muscle mass or overhydration. This makes this chart useful not just for tracking muscle, but also for injury and disease states.

TOP AND BOTTOM BARS

The InBody divides the body into 5 body segments: the two arms, two legs, and the trunk, which can be thought of as covering the area between the neck and legs. The information for each body segment is reported as two bars.

THE TOP BAR

The top bar shows how much Fat Free Mass in kg is in a given segment. Just like with the Muscle-Fat Graph, the top bar of the Segmental Lean Analysis compares the kg of Fat Free Mass against the ideal expected amount of Fat Free Mass for that person’s height and gender.

Your clients should always work to be at 100% or higher.

THE BOTTOM BAR

The bottom bar is different. The number shown by the bottom bar is the percentage and makes it easier to quickly understand see how close to (or past) 100% each bar extends.

What is this bar showing? It’s comparing your client’s Fat Free Mass against their measured body weight. This shows whether or not your client has enough Fat Free Mass to support their own body weight, where 100% = sufficient.

Breaking it Down

In the above example, the 3 upper body segments are over 100%, but the lower body segments are not.

If you’re working with a client like this, they may benefit from exercises that target Lean Body Mass development in their legs. This will help them achieve a more balance body composition and may have other positive effects, such as body fat reduction, as well.

 

Which clients may be at risk for undevelopment?

Any person can theoretically be underdeveloped in a body segment, and without Segmental Lean Analysis, identifying this can be difficult.
However, several groups of clients may be at more risk than others.

Here are three:

1. Sedentary adults
Sedentary adults who do not exercise commonly have below 100% Segmental Lean Mass especially in their legs, primarily due to jobs that require them to sit throughout most of the day.

2. “Skinny Fat” individuals (sarcopenic obese)

People with “skinny fat” profiles have more fat than is healthy for their bodies coupled with a low amount of Lean Body Mass. Their relatively overdeveloped fat or underdeveloped muscle mass contributes to their body weight and may result in scores below 100% for one or more body segment.

3. The elderly
The elderly are at particular risk for not having sufficiently developed Lean Body Mass due to their tendency to lose muscle as a result of increasing inactivity. This impacts their ability to care for themselves as they age and puts them at greater risk of falling and broken bones.

UPPER/LOWER MUSCLE IMBALANCE

Upper/lower body imbalances are fairly common in today’s increasingly sedentary workforce, and you’ll likely encounter cases where the upper body is developed, but the lower body isn’t, like in the example below.

Breaking It Down

If your client looks like this, he or she needs to increase the LBM in their lower legs. Even though the upper body is sufficiently developed, the lower body is still at risk for injury due to the low amount of Lean Body Mass. This client, despite their upper body, risks developing health issues if they keep this body composition.

 

RIGHT/LEFT MUSCLE IMBALANCE

Another imbalance the Segmental Lean Analysis can reveal is the imbalance between the right and left arms and/or legs.

Although this client has a balanced upper body, there’s a significant imbalance between the right and left legs. There are many reasons why this could have occurred: For example, an injury can cause swelling and cause the LBM values to go up.

BREAKING IT DOWN

If you are working with a client whose body composition looks like this, it is helpful to find out more about his or her medical history to determine whether an imbalance is due to swelling or from underdeveloped LBM.

 

Chapter 4: Customizable Outputs

 In this section, you’ll learn:
  • How to track visceral fat and segmental fat
  • How to guide a client to their average weight
  • How to use research parameters to offer nutritional guidance

O n the right-hand side of the Result Sheet are a series of additional outputs that you can mix and match to suit your business needs. Depending on which InBody unit you are using, the outputs available may vary.

You’ll learn about 4 of the most used outputs. All of these are available on the InBody 770. These are:

VISCERAL FAT AREA

As you may know, there are two main types of body fat: subcutaneous and visceral. The Visceral Fat Area graph allows you to determine how much harmful visceral fat your client has.

The graph looks a bit complicated but is actually quite simple to read. The “100” on the left side of the graph represents 100 cm2 of visceral fat.

You should advise your clients to stay below this line for optimal health and to reduce health risks.

Breaking It Down

Research has found that visceral fat is particularly influenced by cardiovascular exercise. Encouraging your client to engage in more cardiovascular exercise may improve his or her health by promoting loss of visceral fat.

WEIGHT CONTROL

This section makes it incredibly simple to set goals for your client. It is designed to help your client reach their ideal body composition.

Depending on your client’s current Muscle-Fat balance, this section of the Result Sheet will recommend adjusting fat mass and/or muscle mass in order to reach the target weight.

If your client is overfat, the InBody will advise losing a certain number of kg of fat mass and maintaining or increasing muscle mass. The InBody will never recommend losing muscle mass.

Breaking It Down

These recommendations are meant to be general guidelines for helping individuals achieve optimal health. However, your clients may have their own set of goals, and these should be discussed prior to planning a routine for meeting those goals.

SEGMENTAL FAT ANALYSIS

In the above example, the person above has 7.0 kg of body fat in her trunk. For a person of their height and gender, that’s 156.1%, or 56.1% more body fat than the average person with the same height and gender. Segmental Fat Analysis is an estimated value based on other body composition results to guide your client consultations.

Breaking It Down

This section can be used to track your client’s improvements in body composition and changes in body fat, over time. While studies have shown that you can’t “spot target” body fat with exercise, you can use this section to encourage your clients and give them a more detailed account of the improvements they are making.

RESEARCH PARAMETERS

For research parameters, nutritional outputs and estimated parameters are provided; Intracellular Water, Extracellular Water, Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR), Waist-Hip Ratio (WHR), Body Cell Mass (BCM), Skeletal Muscle Mass Index (SMI) and etc.

Intra/Extracellular Water shows the amount of water within and outside of the body cells. For healthy people, ICW:ECW ratio is normally 3:2. Thus, it is important to see ECW ratio rather than focusing on an absolute value. BMR is the number of calories you need in order to maintain their basic essential functions.
Along with BMR, BCM can be used to guide your clients’ nutritional plans. BCM is the total mass of all cellular elements in the body, which constitutes all metabolically active tissues of the body. It includes the ICW and protein, which are the main components of muscle. BCM does not include ECW, so it can be used to see muscle mass status in patients with edema.
Lastly, SMI can be obtained by dividing Appendicular Muscle Mass with Height(m)2. Using the SMI value (parameter), you can diagnose sarcopenia and monitor nutritional status.

Chapter 5: Unlocking the Power of the Result Sheet

With a range of models designed to meet the needs of facilities both large and small, InBody body composition analyzers are used in a wide range of industries from research hospitals to training facilities around the world.

Read real-life examples of how people from different industries are using the Result Sheet to positively impact their business.

How the Alzheimer’s Prevention Clinic Used Body Composition to Improve Patient Outcomes

Unit Model: InBody 770

Richard Isaacson, M.D. currently serves as director of the Alzheimer’s Prevention Clinic, Weill Cornell Memory Disorders Program, and Neurology Residency Training Program. The Alzheimer’s Prevention Clinic is the first in the nation to focus on lifestyle intervention measures in a real-world clinical setting. Tracking body composition with InBody is now one of the key strategies in his approach to help patients improve cognitive function and brain health.

Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Uses InBody Devices to Tackle Childhood Obesity

Unit Model: InBody 270

Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center is ranked third in the 2016 U.S. News and World Report survey of best children’s hospitals. Cincinnati Children’s found in InBody a device that was able to provide fast, detailed body composition analysis without breaking the bank.

OPEX Fitness is Changing the Face of Fitness with InBody

Unit Model: InBody 570

OPEX Fitness founder James Fitzgerald is a published researcher and the winner of the first Crossfit Games. When he looked for a valid method for measuring body composition at OPEX Fitness he decided on InBody, a DSM-BIA device used by doctors and researchers in leading facilities around the world.

How Fitness Quest 10 Uses InBody to Increase Profits and ROI

Unit Model: InBody 570

Todd Durkin has won Personal Trainer of the Year (IDEA and ACE) twice and has been listed as “Top 100 Most Influential People in Health & Fitness” (Greatist) four times. For years Durkin looked for a method to test his clients consistently and accurately. After much trial and error, he found InBody. 

Western Digital uses InBody to Educate and Inspire Employee Wellness

Unit Model: InBody 570

Western Digital is a Fortune 500-listed company and is one of the largest computer data storage and hard disk drive manufacturing companies in the world. After encountering and using an InBody at an area fitness center, Senior Wellness Specialist Heather Whitaker saw the potential to bring Western Digital’s Corporate Wellness program to the next level.

How the Anaheim Ducks use InBody to Stay at Peak Performance

Unit Model: InBody 770

Mark Fitzgerald is the strength and conditioning coach for the Anaheim Ducks and the owner of Elite Training Systems, a high-performance training center catered to athletes. Fitzgerald was looking for technology that could measure his player’s body composition in-house quickly and provide accurate, informative outputs. After referrals from trusted sources and self-experimentation, Fitzgerald found his solution in the InBody.

nasa uses InBody body composition analyzer

How InBody Helped NASA Johnson Space Center’s Workforce Wellness Program Have a Record-Breaking 2015

Unit Model: InBody 770

When tasked to find new “dynamic wellness” technology to enhance their fitness and wellness program, Employee Wellness and Fitness Services Manager Evan Thoman brought in an InBody 770 to replace their existing body composition tools: calipers and handheld BIA devices.

We can help your business grow.

Let’s Talk.

You can improve your business by improving your services, inspiring your current clients to stay with you and build your reputation. With InBody, you’ll not only get the best product on the market, but a dedicated partner committed to helping you reach your business goals, just as you help your clients reach theirs.